Collection Development Policy
|Mission, Purpose, Goals, and Collection Scope|
|General Collection Guidelines|
|Organization of Collection Development Activities|
|Special Collecting Areas|
|History of the Libraries' Collection|
Mission of the Libraries and of Collection Development
The mission of collection development at the University of Georgia Libraries is encompassed within the Libraries' Mission Statement:
“The University of Georgia Libraries provide collections and services in support of the instruction, research, and service missions of the University of Georgia. In keeping with the University's dual role as capstone of the University System of Georgia, and as a land grant/sea grant public institution, emphasis is placed on meeting anticipated as well as current needs.
The Libraries develop, manage, and store collections in an expanding variety of formats; provide access to knowledge and information in those collections using appropriate storage, access, and communications technologies; preserve the information in those collections for present and future generations; and assist and instruct the public in the use of library resources. The Libraries also serve the public through participation in cooperative efforts to collect, access, and preserve information at the regional, national, and international levels.”
The Libraries' current Five-Year Plan includes the following goal for collections:
“The Evolving Collection: Blending Access, Ownership, and Preservation:
The modern library collection is a mix of traditional print and a growing body of electronic publications. Our challenge is providing the best blend of these resources in a package that is easily understood and used.”
- To translate the university’s research, instructional, and programmatic needs into collecting practices for the Libraries’ collections
- To describe the scope and nature of the collections
- To delineate collection priorities
- To provide guidelines and encourage consistency for librarians with selection responsibilities
- To facilitate the rational and orderly expenditure of the materials budget within the fiscal year
- To communicate the Libraries’ collection policies to the public
Those responsible for collection development in all subject areas at the University of Georgia Libraries strive to:
- Make informed and timely resource selection decisions based on a carefully prepared, up-to-date collection development policy
- Allocate the materials budget and perform selection in a systematic manner that maximizes coverage, minimizes gaps, and avoids unnecessary duplication
- Anticipate as well as respond to users' needs
- Be engaged with the complete life-cycle of items in the collection, including selection, use, storage, preservation, and possible withdrawal from the collection
- Base changes on continuing evaluation of collections, evolving academic programs, and library use patterns
- Participate in cooperative purchasing agreements with other libraries
- Follow principles of intellectual freedom as contained in the American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights ( http://www.ala.org/ala/oif/statementspols/statementsif/librarybillrights.htm )
- Recruit, train, and encourage professional growth of library faculty in collection development roles
- Enhance understanding of the purpose and nature of collection development within the Libraries and the university community
The University of Georgia Libraries support the teaching, research and services of a large, diversified university with 3,000 faculty and over 33,000 students. At the undergraduate level, the university provides baccalaureate degree programs in over 150 fields. At the graduate level, the university offers Master’s degrees in over 128 areas of concentration and Doctoral degrees in over 90 areas. In addition, professional degree programs are available in law, pharmacy, and veterinary medicine.
The size and range of the university’s programs require a library collection that is correspondingly large and diverse. There are few subject areas in the collection for which material is selected at less than an instructional level, defined as adequate to support undergraduate and most graduate instruction, as well as sustained independent study. Many collecting areas are supported at a higher research level, covering the major published source materials required for dissertations and independent research, including materials containing research reporting, new findings, scientific experimental results, and other information useful to researchers. Greater emphasis has traditionally been placed on collecting materials published in North America and Western Europe.
Collections of distinction, very strong collections that have the potential for attracting scholars from around the world, can be found in the Libraries’ special collections, including Georgiana materials, twentieth-century Georgia political history, Georgia newspapers, federal and state of Georgia government publications, the map and cartographic materials collection, the Peabody Archive of Broadcasting History and the fine printing and papermaking collection in the Hargrett Library.
The Libraries acquire materials through two main avenues:
- Automatic supply via approval plans, standing orders, and subscriptions
- Firm orders for individual titles
Like many large research libraries, the University of Georgia Libraries use approval plans to assist in building collections. An approval plan is an arrangement by which a wholesaler assumes the responsibility for selecting and supplying all publications fitting a library's collection goals. Materials sent to the UGA Libraries through the approval plan are reviewed by library subject specialists before they are accepted for the collection. The Libraries’ primary approval plan brings in scholarly monographs from U.S., Canadian, and British university presses and U.S. trade publishers. More specialized approval plans are used to acquire materials from countries where firm ordering is problematic and for special categories such as music scores, sound recordings, and art exhibition catalogs.
Approval plans allow the UGA Libraries to acquire significant titles in a variety of subject fields quickly and at a discount. For subject areas, publishers, and types of publications where approval plans are not appropriate, subject selectors acquire materials by firm ordering.
When a publication is of an ongoing nature, such as a journal or a publisher’s series, and the Libraries wish to acquire all the volumes, standing orders and subscriptions are the best approach.
Criteria differ from one subject area to another, but in general the following factors should be considered in the decision to purchase a library resource:
- Availability of copies in other university system libraries or other research institutions in Georgia
- Degree of specialization (whether the resource is likely to serve multiple interests or a more narrow range of users)
- Intended audience (scholarly vs. popular; university vs. lower-level, etc.)
- Physical condition (for older materials)
- Projected need based on use patterns of similar material already in the collection
- Relevance to curriculum
- Reputation and type of publisher
- Reputation of author
The Libraries’ print collections are highly centralized, with most resources housed in one of two locations: humanities and social sciences material in the Main Library and science and technology material in the Science Library. Smaller special-purpose collections are the Curriculum Materials Library, the Map Library, the Music Library, the Miller Learning Center Reading Room, and the Veterinary Medicine Reading Room. In general the decentralization of collections across the campus in departmental libraries and reading rooms has not been encouraged, and the centralized approach to collection building has been very beneficial. In addition to being more economical (less duplication of resources and services), centralized collections are more convenient and efficient for most students and faculty to use as their research and study interests become more interdisciplinary. Electronic resources, which are an increasingly important part of the Libraries’ collection as a whole, lie outside the issue of centralized physical facilities.
As a very general guideline, the purchase of current material receives preference over the acquisition of retrospective material. Newly published material is usually less expensive to acquire, and, more importantly, it tends to be the type of material most in demand by faculty and students. Building strong collections of current materials also lessens the need for retrospective collecting in the future.
The amount of retrospective collecting performed varies by subject area and by the availability of funding. Normally it is done primarily in response to faculty requests. Retrospective materials are acquired as original publications, reprints, microforms, and digital editions. Original publications may be more expensive to acquire and in less viable physical condition. No preference is given to acquiring an original publication for the general collection unless the member of the university community who requests it provides a compelling reason to do so. In contrast to the general collection, some of the Libraries’ special collecting areas place greater emphasis on retrospective acquisitions.
Electronic resources include any work that has been digitally encoded and made available through the use of a computer. The data may be remotely accessed or held by the Libraries in a physical format such as compact disc. The Libraries acquire access to digital information through a variety of avenues, including providing links in the catalog to free resources on the internet, digitally reformatting texts and images in the Digital Library of Georgia, and purchasing or licensing commercial products. It is with the final category that this policy is concerned.
Electronic resources represent the most expensive category of materials in the Libraries’ budget. A variety of purchasing models exist, including one-time payment, payment spread over several years, and ongoing annual subscription. Even when the one-time option is chosen, an ongoing annual maintenance fee usually applies and may increase over time. Thus the purchase of an electronic resource can constitute a large and ongoing commitment of the Libraries’ resources and should be considered with this in mind. Subject selectors should also investigate whether a discounted price can be negotiated by making the purchase jointly with other libraries in such consortia as GETSM, ASERL, SOLINET, etc.
In the purchase of electronic resources, consideration of the following factors is essential:
- While one academic school or department may be the primary users of an electronic resource, the resource must be available to the entire university community if the Libraries are to fund the purchase
- For electronic journal subscriptions, long-term archival access to purchased content must be provided, either by the vendor of the electronic version or through other means
- The licensing agreement must meet library, university, and state legal requirements
The following additional factors may influence the decision to purchase an electronic resource:
- The resource provides added value over the print version (if applicable) in the form of greater searching capabilities, more frequent updates, multimedia data provided that is unavailable in print, etc.
- There is little overlap with other electronic resources
- Remote access is preferable to physical ownership in the form of CDs or other formats
- Full-text content or reliable links to full-text are provided
- Links are frequently checked and well maintained
- No plug-ins or other extra software or hardware are required to use the resource
- Number of simultaneous users is unlimited
- Use statistics are provided
- Resource is compatible with a variety of web browsers
- Navigation is easy and clearly explained
- Effective tutorials or other forms of help are provided
- Downloading and printing options are clearly explained and function reliably
- Updates are regular and timely
- Vendor has a reputation for prompt and effective technical support
The Libraries’ microform collections provide significant resources for research in a wide variety of subject areas. Microform types include microfilm, microfiche, microprint, and microcards.
With the advent of electronic resources, microforms are not purchased as heavily by the Libraries as in former times, but when microform is the only available or most appropriate format needed by researchers, the Libraries will make an effort to acquire it as funding permits. Silver halide is the preferred type of microform, as other types such as diazo and vesicular have uncertain longevity.
The Media Department houses the Libraries’ collection of commercially distributed audio and visual materials. Materials for this collection are selected by faculty request or in support of the university curriculum, with special emphasis on television studies and Georgia-related topics. Most selection decisions are made by Media Department librarians and staff, but subject selectors elsewhere in the organization may also use their funds to purchase audio-visual resources.
The Music Library serves as the primary access point for music audio and video recordings. CDs and DVDs are the most common formats currently collected, but the collection also includes other formats such as LPs, audio cassettes, VHS tapes, and Laserdiscs.
The Curriculum Materials Library collects audio-visual materials for teacher training and education.
The Libraries maintain a strong, extensive collection of current periodicals and serials. The responsibility for periodical and serial selection rests with the appropriate subject selector who weighs each potential addition or cancellation carefully, taking into account requests from faculty and students, current trends in the subject field, and financial considerations. Although the ideal practice would be to start new subscriptions whenever they are requested by users or deemed desirable by the subject selector, budget limitations may require that current subscriptions of equivalent cost be cancelled before a new subscription can be added. Because of the ongoing monetary commitment made when new periodicals or serials are selected, the Director for Collection Development or Head of Science Collections must approve all new subscription requests as well as cancellations.
In addition to the general selection criteria listed above, the following factors are desirable when a subject selector considers adding new subscriptions to periodicals and serials:
- Electronic availability, including backfiles
- Full-text availability
- Inclusion in major indexing and abstracting tools
While it is desirable to have subscriptions to periodicals for which UGA faculty serve as editors or editorial board members, budget limitations may prevent the Libraries from systematically or comprehensively collecting such journals.
In general, the electronic-only format, when available, is preferred for periodical subscriptions. High subscription costs preclude collecting both electronic and print formats in most cases. Electronic subscriptions have the advantages of not occupying physical space and not requiring as much handling by library staff. Exceptions to this policy include lack of acceptable archiving practices on the part of the electronic format vendor or superiority of the print format with regard to images or other considerations.
Upon the decision of the subject selector, back issues of print periodicals are bound and shelved, or retained until a microform copy is obtained, or discarded after a designated interval. Materials printed on low-quality paper such as newsprint, which will rapidly deteriorate, cannot be retained in print format in the general collection.
The newspaper collection of the University of Georgia Libraries is a significant information resource for the state of Georgia and the southeastern region of the nation. The collection’s greatest strength is in its coverage of Georgia news, but it also has a selection of regional, national, and foreign newspapers. New newspaper subscriptions, like other continuations, are initiated with great care and must be approved by the Director for Collection Development or Head of Science Collections.
Because of the availability of current news online, the Libraries’ collection of current print newspapers is relatively small, consisting of titles from major Georgia cities and representative regional, national, and foreign papers. Print newspapers are retained for periods ranging from several months to a year and then discarded; however, some of the same titles are also received in microfilm and retained permanently for research purposes.
The Georgia Newspaper Project was begun in 1953 for the purpose of microfilming at least one newspaper from every Georgia county, beginning with the earliest newspaper available, and with the ultimate goal of preserving “every state newspaper of value to future students of all facets of Georgia history.” As well as microfilming past newspaper issues, the GNP also films several hundred current Georgia newspapers on an ongoing basis.
Although the predominant language of the Libraries’ collection is English, followed by the major European languages, subject selectors acquire material in any language appropriate to a given subject area. The frequency of acquisition of materials in languages other than English necessarily varies from discipline to discipline and depends to some extent as well on specific research needs.
Literary works in major European languages are acquired in the original language as well as in English translation. Non-literary works may be acquired in the original language and/or in English translation, depending on the subject. Purchase of works translated from one foreign language into another is generally avoided but may be initiated if no English translation exists. In this case, translation into a more accessible language (usually French, German or Spanish) will be preferred. Translations from English into other languages are acquired only in the rarest of circumstances.
Prior to 1999, the University of Georgia Libraries accepted only print theses and dissertations. Binding services were provided to students above and beyond the two copies (one for the Main or Science stacks and one for the Georgia Room) that were required to be submitted to the Libraries. In 1999, the University of Georgia’s Graduate School began accepting electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs). At that point in time, students could choose to submit either a print or an electronic version of their thesis or dissertation, but not both. Beginning with the Fall Semester of 2001 theses and dissertations were required to be submitted in electronic format only, and the Libraries no longer provided binding services for students who wanted to have a print copy of their thesis or dissertation bound.
Since the Fall Semester of 2001, print copies of theses and dissertations have not been systematically added to the collection when an electronic copy exists. However, when a bound thesis or dissertation is offered as a gift, it may be added to the collection at the discretion of any bibliographer or the Head of the Georgiana Collection to replace a copy that is fragile, damaged, or lost, or to supplement the electronic version. Normally the Libraries should only hold two copies of a thesis or dissertation: either two print copies or a print copy and its electronic version. Print copies dating from 1999 to the present that are added as gifts will become part of the Georgiana Collection.
For added copies of UGA theses and dissertations which do not have an electronic copy (i.e., those prior to 1999), added copies will only be added to the Georgiana Collection upon approval of the head of that collection, or to the stacks upon approval of the appropriate bibliographer.
Because there is a strong possibility that faculty-authored works will be frequently used for teaching and research, such publications are regularly acquired. Many of these publications are supplied by the Libraries’ approval plan for scholarly materials. The Libraries do not, however, make a systematic effort to collect every publication produced by UGA faculty. The general guidelines for textbooks, reprints, multiple copies, replacements, and translations, found elsewhere in this policy, are applicable to faculty publications.
The term “textbook” is used to describe a variety of publications, and thus a clear, concise definition is not possible. Most textbooks do not present new information about a topic but are rather designed to present summaries, surveys, or introductions. They may include sections with problems or exercises.
In general, the Libraries’ emphasis is on collecting works presenting new and original research or primary source material rather than textbooks. However, in addition to material supporting advanced teaching and research, it is important for the Libraries to provide basic instructional material for members of the university community who may be beginning new areas of inquiry. A selection of textbooks or other introductory publications aimed at a university-level audience is therefore appropriate for the Libraries’ collection, but no effort is made to collect systematically or heavily in this type of material. Study guides and materials accompanying textbooks, such as instructor guides and workbooks, are rarely purchased.
A major exception is material purchased for the Curriculum Materials Library, including textbooks, curriculum guides, and tests, collected in support of the College of Education’s programs in teacher training.
If a professor wishes to have a textbook placed on reserve for a class and the textbook is not already in the general collection, Reserves will order a single copy, but the Libraries do not acquire multiple copies of textbooks that are required for coursework. Students may use the copy on reserve or purchase their own copy at a bookstore.
The Libraries’ primary collection development commitment is to the acquisition of scholarly materials supporting the University’s teaching and research needs; however, on a limited basis popular reading materials are also acquired. The general collection contains a selective representation of specific popular genres, for example, classics of mystery or American western fiction, and science fiction materials.
In addition to the limited amount of popular material in the general collection, separate “Reading for Pleasure” collections in the Main and Science Libraries and the Miller Learning Center Reading Room contain titles of popular interest to the University community. Requests for specific titles and for multiple copies are considered on an individual basis. Titles remain in these collections until either their popularity diminishes or their physical condition deteriorates beyond repair. When books are removed from Reading for Pleasure, subject selectors for the general collection are given an opportunity to evaluate any in usable condition for possible addition to the general collection.
Greater emphasis is placed on the acquisition of unique material rather than multiple copies of the same title. However, multiple copies may be ordered at the discretion of the subject selector based on demonstrated or predicted demand. In addition to the general collection there may also be a need for copies in other locations in the collection such as Reference or special collections.
As noted in the section on textbooks, classroom assignments sometimes create temporarily high demand for certain titles. In this situation ordering multiple copies for the general collection is not recommended because even multiple library copies may not be sufficient for the immediate need and may not arrive until after the need has subsided. A preferable alternative is for the professor making the reading assignment to place the library copy of the book on reserve (Reserves will order a copy if the title is not already in the general collection) or encourage students to purchase their own copy.
Evaluating the continued need for material worn or damaged beyond repair or lost by users is a fundamental part of collection development. Standard works, classics, and studies on topics of current interest are usually the most heavily used material in the Libraries, and as such, the material most susceptible to damage or loss. Subject selectors should make every effort to replace material that is still of value to current or future users, but they may also determine that a lost or damaged item does not need to be replaced if other copies or editions are available in the collection or if the title was of marginal significance to the collection.
Collecting new and unique titles is generally preferred to acquiring different editions of items already in the Libraries’ collection. However, adding another edition is entirely appropriate if the edition already in the Libraries’ collection:
- Is lost or missing
- Is worn or damaged beyond repair
- Dates from the era of publications that are now becoming brittle (approximately 1870-1930) due to acidic paper. Subject selectors should consult with Preservation staff to determine whether a volume is actually brittle rather than merely old and whether any repairs are possible.
- Has a high circulation count (the definition of high varies from one subject area to another)
Adding another edition is also appropriate when:
- The edition under consideration makes an important contribution to scholarship in the discipline because of the author’s or editor’s reputation, approach, etc.
- The edition under consideration is likely to be in demand by users
- The content of the edition under consideration has been substantially revised or updated
Experience has demonstrated that hardcover bindings provide significant protection against normal wear and tear as well as more serious damage from fire or water disasters. The Libraries acquire hardcover volumes either by purchasing them in hardback or by purchasing paperbacks and having them commercially bound. When a title is available in both hardback and paperback format, the hardback format is generally preferred. However, if the price difference between the two formats is significant, the selection of the paperback edition may be warranted even though binding the paperback will incur some additional expense and time.
The Libraries welcome gifts of scholarly materials, whether in the form of large collections or individual volumes. In order to facilitate the Libraries' commitment to access, donors are asked not to place restrictions on the gifts they provide. All gifts are reviewed by subject selectors or special collections staff to determine their appropriateness for addition to the collection. Gifts are not added to the collection when their content is outside the scope of the collection, their physical condition is poor, or they would represent unnecessary duplication of material in the collection. Gift materials not added to the collection are donated to other libraries, sold, or discarded.
Books are sometimes produced in a preliminary state that predates the first published edition; these are known as uncorrected proofs or galleys. Because further changes may be made to the book manuscript before publication, uncorrected proofs and galleys do not represent the final version of the publication. They are not added to the Libraries' general collection, but they may be considered for special collections. Books labeled as "advanced reading copy," "review copy," "free copy not for commercial distribution," or similar wording do represent the final version of the publication and may be added as gifts to any area of the collection.
Library staff cannot appraise the value of the gift material. Donors may have independent professional appraisals performed for especially valuable gifts. More information about gifts to the Libraries may be found at http://www.libs.uga.edu/acquisit/gifts.html.
Normally the Libraries attempt to fill all orders and honor commitments to ongoing publications such as periodicals, but from time to time it is necessary and sometimes even desirable to cancel orders and subscriptions.
Firm orders that have not been filled within a reasonable time are reviewed by subject selectors and cancelled if the material is no longer wanted or if the chances of obtaining it have become unacceptably low. Cancellation frees up encumbered funds so that they may be spent on other resources.
Publications and products requiring an ongoing commitment should be evaluated not only when first considered for purchase, but also in subsequent years to make sure they are still appropriate for the collection and worth the cost of continuing. The following circumstances may prompt cancellation:
- The resource no longer offers valuable, reliable, or current information
- The resource is no longer well-maintained
- Another resource offers superior coverage
- Use statistics reveal unacceptably low use or high cost per use
- Price increases are unsustainable
- Budget shortfalls force the Libraries to cut back on subscriptions
- Some volumes (as in a publisher’s series) are still desired, but not all. The desired ones would be better purchased by firm ordering them individually
Because there is not sufficient room in the Main and Science Libraries to house all of the Libraries’ collections, subject selectors choose materials to be transferred to remote storage, from which it may be retrieved at the user’s request. The selection criteria for storage vary by subject, but typical factors are the age and circulation history of each title and whether additional copies or later editions are available.
The University of Georgia Libraries are committed to retaining most materials in perpetuity for future generations of scholars. While some materials may seem more relevant and valuable than others, scholarly emphasis changes over time, and it is impossible to predict with complete accuracy the research trends of the future. Information considered outdated by today’s standards may be of historical research interest in years to come.
Exceptions to this rule include:
- Materials that are too damaged or worn to use and impossible to repair
- Materials produced on newsprint or other poor-quality paper that will deteriorate quickly
- Serial publications in which the new volume completely supersedes the previous one
- Additional copies of titles that are receiving little or no use, as long as at least one copy is retained
Building and maintaining a collection of resources that supports the teaching and research of a large university requires the efforts of many dedicated individuals. At UGA collection development is carried out primarily by the Libraries’ faculty and staff, although requests and advice from teaching and research faculty are actively solicited.
The Libraries follow a hybrid model for collection development that makes use of full-time subject selectors with multiple subject assignments in the Collection Development and Science Collections departments as well as individuals based in other departments who have part-time selection responsibilities. Selection activities also take place in specialized areas such as Reference and special collections. Subject selectors are supported by classified staff assistants who perform the searching and verification necessary to ensure accuracy and completeness of information for selection decision-making.
In addition to selection, other collection development responsibilities include faculty liaison; library instruction and user assistance; collection analysis; monitoring of standing orders, subscriptions, and approval plans; selection of materials for remote storage; and development of collection policies.
Defining Collection Assignments for Subject Selectors
There are three ways that collection development responsibilities are divided among the Libraries’ subject selectors: by broad subject discipline, by university departments or schools, and by Library of Congress classification. There is some overlap among these organizational methods, but no one method works adequately for building the collection successfully.
Dividing responsibilities by LC classification has the advantage of establishing clear boundaries, and this method is used for internal, administrative purposes in the Libraries. For example, selection forms are distributed to subject selectors by LC classification categories.
But scholarship does not conform to these precise subject boundaries: it is increasingly interdisciplinary, and faculty and students in almost every discipline use library material in a wide range of LC classifications. Thus, for example, the history subject selector is responsible not only for the C, D, E, F, U, and V Library of Congress classifications, but also for any material that faculty and students in the history department might request. The history subject selector should therefore attempt to acquire all appropriate materials in the assigned classification(s), even if members of the history department might not be the primary users of a particular item. At the same time, the history selector should also acquire materials in other call number ranges if they are desired by or appropriate for members of the history department. Subject selectors are also encouraged to consult and collaborate on significant purchases.
See Subject Specialists for a list of subject selectors and their areas of responsibility.
The Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library of the University of Georgia consists of the Rare Book and Manuscript Library, the Georgiana Collection, the University of Georgia Archives and Records Management. The Hargrett Library serves the University scholarly community, as well as scholars and researchers worldwide. Subject interests include Georgia, book arts, theater, music, history, literature, journalism, and genealogy. For more information about the Hargrett Library’s collections and collecting policies, see Collections of Hargrett Library. The collection development policy for the University Archives is included below.
The mission of University Archives is to collect materials that document the history of the University of Georgia, including the official records, and to organize, preserve and make accessible those materials to the citizens of the state of Georgia, as well as researchers worldwide. A documentary record should be preserved of the seven broad university functions as identified by Helen Willa Samuels in her book, Varsity Letters: conveying knowledge, fostering socialization, conducting research, sustaining the institution, providing public service and promoting culture.
Initially we pursue this mission through the Records Management program by promoting the institutional use of the University System of Georgia Records Retention Schedule to ensure that essential documents are preserved as required by law. Once these documents have met the administrative needs of the institution, they are sought by University Archives and examined for selection to become the core of the historical record of the institution. Many unofficial materials also are collected that illuminate and document the history of the University of Georgia.
|University Serial Publications|
|Records of Faculty|
|Documentation of Life|
|Records of Academic, Scientific and Professional Societies|
|Cooperation with Other Archives|
|Handling Materials not Selected: Deaccessioning|
University Archives is the designated repository of the official records of the University of Georgia. These records may consist of, but are not limited to: papers, reports, publications, photographs, architectural documentation and other materials and media. We will collect the papers of University Presidents, Vice Presidents, Deans, Directors, Colleges, Schools, Departments and other major units of the institution. These series include, but are not limited to, the items scheduled for archival preservation in the Board of Regents Records Schedule.
University Archives seeks to collect a type set of all significant publications of the University. In cases of some publications used heavily in answering reference queries, a reference copy also will be added.
University Archives seeks to collect biographical information regarding the careers of all faculty members at UGA. It will selectively collect papers and other materials related to teaching, research and publishing by faculty.
Materials documenting organizations closely affiliated with campus life such as fraternities, sororities, clubs and other student, faculty and staff organizations can be of great interest to researchers and will be selectively collected. University Archives will selectively collect other materials not produced by the institution that enrich the understanding of the University of Georgia experience. These materials will commonly be minutes, publications, photographs, broadsides and suchlike. Although the Archives is not a museum, it is pleased to consider accession of realia related to the University and campus life, but must be selective due to space limitations.
By terms of specific agreements, University Archives curates the collections of several societies that are not part of the university, but have close associations with faculty or programs at the university. Any such collection activity will be described in the terms of the agreement with the society.
Due to the expenses and storage requirements associated with such collections, University Archives must be very selective regarding any new additions and funding to curate the collection must be considered. It will be the policy of the University Archives, upon entering into any such future agreements, that materials thus accumulated generally be open to the general public, in parallel with University collections.
University Archives will evaluate all media that fit its collection policy. In some cases, when access and preservation can better be accomplished by placing the material with another campus unit, such as the Peabody Media Archives, it will be so placed. In such cases, records will be maintained in University Archives to direct researchers to the material.
When University Archives receives materials that are not appropriate to its collections it will direct the donor to an appropriate archive or will direct the materials to that archive after communicating with donor.
Not all materials in new collections will necessarily be of archival value and, over time, items once deemed of value may no longer be considered to be worth retaining. Often such materials are duplicates of items already well represented in the collections.
When items are removed from new or existing collections, the office of origin or donor will be notified and the items returned or discarded. When discarding items bearing sensitive information, such as grades or social security numbers, University Archives will use the services of the Records Management program's bonded document destruction service.
Due to space limitations, University Archives generally will not accept books unrelated to the University or reading files of reprints unless they bear annotations of significance. Books will be returned to donors or, with their permission, offered to the University Libraries for their collection and disposal according to their policies. University Archives generally does not accept specimens or samples relating to research work.
The Richard B. Russell Library for Political Research and Studies, established in 1974 upon donation of the late senator’s collection, serves as a center for research and study of the modern American political system. With particular emphasis on the role of Georgia and the U. S. Congress, collection development and programming focus on the dynamic relationship of politics, policy, and culture—generated wherever public interest intersects with government. The breadth and depth of Russell Library’s more than 150 collections provide an interconnected framework of perspectives and experiences for understanding the increasingly diverse people, events, and ideas shaping Georgia’s political landscape. For more information about the Russell Library’s collections and collecting policies, see Collections at the Russell Library.
The mission of the Media Archives is to preserve and protect the materials that reflect the collective memory of broadcasting and the history of the state of Georgia and its people; to provide access to the collections through the creation and development of ongoing public programming and the maintenance of a viewing facility for researchers; so that we may serve the research, and study needs of the University of Georgia its faculty, students, and staff, as well as the campus community and the public at large. The UGA Media Archive's scope of service extends beyond the University of Georgia, providing reference assistance to researchers around the world, as well as participating in cooperative preservation projects with other moving image and sound archives. For more information about the Media Archives’ collections and collecting policies, see Media Archives Collections: An Overview.
The primary focus of the Curriculum Materials Library collection is on materials for the College of Education's undergraduate programs, particularly those related to teacher training and preparation. Materials support Educational Field Experiences in the College of Education, the methods and practicum courses in the education curriculum, and children's and young adults’ literature courses. The collection includes juvenile and young adult literature, textbooks, supplementary teaching materials, curriculum guides, reference works, audio-visual materials, journals, and tests. For more information about the Curriculum Materials Library, see Curriculum Materials Library Collections.
The primary purpose of the Map & Government Information Library is to develop and maintain a modern, research-oriented collection of cartographic materials. Its staff is responsible for collecting cartographic material in all formats (paper, microform and digital) for the University of Georgia Libraries, including maps, atlases, remote sensed imagery, gazetteers, journals and cartographic reference materials. The Map Library’s holdings include:
- Sheet maps: current and historical U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps; topographic map sets for most countries in various scales; worldwide nautical and aeronautical charts; select thematic, country and city maps from around the world with an emphasis on the United States and the State of Georgia
- Atlases: general reference, national, historical and thematic
- Remote sensed imagery, primarily of the State of Georgia
- Journals related to map collections and map librarianship.
- Gazetteers and place name guides
- Cartographic reference materials
Duplication of cartographic material between the Map Library and other UGA Libraries is usually limited to general reference atlases; however, exceptions can be made to meet user needs.
All cartographic materials are housed in the Map Library with the following exceptions:
- Select pre-20th century cartographic materials for which the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library has primary responsibility
- Select general reference atlases and other items described above
The mission of the Map Library is to provide bibliographic, physical, and intellectual access to cartographic information consistent with the mission of the University of Georgia Libraries. Its primary responsibility is to provide cartographic information, resources and services to the students, staff and faculty of the University. As a regional resource center, its secondary responsibility is to meet the cartographic information needs of state, regional, national and international researchers, with a particular emphasis on cartographic information related to the State of Georgia. For more information about the Map & Government Information Library's collections and collecting policies, see Map & Government Information Library Collections.
|State of Georgia Documents|
|State Documents (other than Georgia )|
|United Nations Documents|
|United States Documents|
African documents are no longer added by Government Documents staff. Previously collected annual reports of government departments and the gazettes of the legislatures of selected countries are available either in microform at the Main Library or at the Libraries’ Repository.
The government publications of the United Kingdom are issued by the Stationery Office and are divided into two groups: non-Parliamentary (department or agency) and Parliamentary. The University of Georgia Libraries receive the Parliamentary publications in various formats which are housed in the Government Documents collection in the Main Library. Those Parliamentary documents include: the House of Lords and House of Commons papers; bills; command papers; debates (Hansard); acts; votes; proceedings; and some statistical publications. The majority of the British documents in the Libraries are non-Parliamentary and are purchased by bibliographers and classified in LC.
The University of Georgia Libraries are a selective depository for publications issued by the federal government of Canada through the Depository Services Program. Documents deemed to be of research interest are selected. Canadian publications not available through the Depository Services Program are added to the collection if they are free and of research interest. Documents of Canadian provinces are not included in the Canadian documents collection. Canadian documents are housed in the Main Library, Science Library, and Libraries’ Repository.
French documents are not currently collected as part of the Government Documents collection though they may be added to the Libraries’ collections at the discretion of bibliographers and classified in LC. The official gazettes and some legislative publications of the French government previously received are generally housed at the Libraries’ Repository, except for microforms housed in the Main Library.
While the University of Georgia Libraries have been collecting Georgia documents for many years, we were designated the official depository for Georgia government publications in 1993. The Official Code of Georgia Annotated 20-5-2 mandates agencies and departments within the executive branch of the Georgia state government deposit in the University of Georgia Libraries five print copies and one electronic copy of publications that are produced with the intent to distribute to the public. The Governor and all other officers who are required to make reports to the General Assembly are also required to submit copies.
The five print copies are distributed to the Georgia Documents Collection at the University of Georgia Libraries, the Digital Library of Georgia at the University of Georgia Libraries for digitization in the Georgia Government Publications database, Odum Library at Valdosta State University, Zach S. Henderson Library at Georgia Southern University, and the Georgia Archives. After digitization the Digital Library of Georgia copy is sent to the Library of Congress.
In addition to print and electronic copies, agencies are required to submit publications produced in any of the following formats: CD-ROM, DVD, DVD-ROM, maps, posters, videorecordings, etc. Forms and internal agency publications are not included as required submissions. Although OCGA 20-5-2 specifies that reports of the Supreme Court and Court of Appeals, the journals of the House and Senate, and the session laws enacted by the General Assembly are not required for deposit, the UGA Libraries receives copies of these publications as part of the Georgia Documents Collection.
Publications by individual units of the University System of Georgia are not considered state documents in this collection. However, the Board of Regents is a state agency, and as such its publications are part of the Georgia Documents Collection. Although some publications of the Regional Development Centers are included in the Georgia Documents Collection, their legal counsel advised that these are not considered state agencies because the RDCs do not receive the state funding that state agencies receive; therefore, they are not required to comply.
The Georgia Government Publications database, a project of the Digital Library of Georgia, GALILEO, and the University of Georgia Libraries, provides online public access to the full text of public documents of departments and agencies within the Georgia state government published from 1994 to the present.
Print documents, including all folio copies and those of a scientific and technical nature, published by the State of Georgia from 1876 to date are located in the Georgia Documents Collection in the Main Library. Microform, CD-ROM, DVD, maps, etc. are housed together with U.S. and other government documents in the Main Library. Documents published prior to 1876 are located in the Hargrett Library's Georgia Collection.
Audit reports produced by the Georgia Department of Audits and Accounts published prior to 2000 and additional copies (c.2) of Georgia government publications, primarily published prior to 1993, are housed at the Libraries’ Repository.
No documents published by states other than Georgia are included in the Government Documents collection.
The University of Georgia Libraries have an overall standing order for United Nations Sales Publications in all available subject categories. In addition, subscriptions are maintained for Official Records from the principal organs of the United Nations, as well as for the United Nations Treaty Series and selected periodicals.
Not included in the United Nations documents print collection are mimeographed documents, most International Court of Justice documents, and documents from specialized agencies and other autonomous organizations within the United Nations system, e.g., International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, World Health Organization, etc.
A standing order for the Readex microprint/microfiche edition of the United Nations publications is maintained. This includes a complete collection of the mimeographed and printed documents as well as the Official Records of the principal organs of the United Nations. Also included are the documents of every committee, commission, conference and seminar of the principal organs. Sales publications are not all included in the microform collection.
All United Nations documents in various formats are housed in the Government Documents collection in the Main Library, regardless of subject matter.
|Subject Areas and Collection Arrangement|
|Weeding and Maintenance|
The Federal Depository Library Program originated in the early 1800’s when a joint resolution of Congress directed that additional copies of the House and Senate Journals and other documents be printed and distributed to institutions outside the Federal establishment.
Chapter 19 of Title 44 of the United States Code is the authority for the establishment and operation of the Federal Depository Library Program. The legal responsibilities of Federal depository libraries fall into two broad categories:
- Providing for free public access to Government information
- Providing for the proper maintenance of the depository materials entrusted to the individual depository’s care (Instructions to Depository Libraries)
The University of Georgia Libraries was designated a selective depository as a land grant institution in 1907. It was designated as a U.S. Regional Depository in 1977 and is the only regional depository in the State of Georgia. The Regional Depository supports the general collecting activities of the Libraries, the constituency in the 10th U.S. Congressional District, the 23 selective depository libraries in Georgia, and all the citizens of the state. These activities are done in accordance with the requirements defined in the Instructions to Depository Libraries, Guidelines for the Depository Library System, and the Federal Depository Library Manual. As the Regional Depository, the University of Georgia Libraries is expected to have the most comprehensive collection of U.S. Government publications in the State along with the appropriate resources to support access to this collection.
The U.S. Regional Depository supports the mission of the University of Georgia Libraries through effective utilization of all available resources in order to meet users’ needs for U.S. Government information in a variety of formats. It supports the activities of the Libraries in its current and future instructional and research needs. It provides free and unimpeded access to U.S. Government information to the public and supports the activities of the selective depository libraries in the state.
The US Regional Depository Librarian is responsible for the collection management of the U.S. Government publications collection and oversees any necessary selection responsibilities with appropriate library and university faculty.
As a Regional Depository, the Libraries receive all U.S. Government publications that are distributed through the Federal Depository Library Program of the U.S. Government Printing Office. It is required to retain permanently in its collection all of these documents.
As a general rule, the Libraries will not keep or acquire duplicates of documents for its collection. However, consideration will be given to acquiring duplicate copies of heavily used materials and documents that contain information about Georgia or the Southeast. Government publications from federal agencies that are not distributed through the Federal Depository Library Program may be acquired to enhance the U.S. Government Documents Collection.
As a Regional Depository, the University of Georgia Libraries collect documents in all formats in all subject areas from all the federal government agencies.
The Superintendent of Documents Classification system is used for most U.S. Government documents in the collection. The documents are housed in separate collections in the Main and Science Libraries. Documents of a reference nature are shelved in designated reference areas in the Main and Science Libraries. Locations and holdings for documents are indicated in the U.S. Government Documents shelf list and in GIL, the Libraries on-line catalog.
The Science Library houses the documents published by agencies responsible for the science and technology areas. Some of these agencies are:
- U.S. Department of Agriculture
- U.S. Department of Energy
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
- U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration
- U.S. National Institutes of Health
- U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, etc.
The Map Library located off campus houses the maps received through the Federal Depository Library Program with the exception of the Census maps, which are housed in the Main Library.
U.S. Government publications in the Federal Depository Library Program are available in a variety of formats. These formats include paper, maps, microforms, and electronic -- all of which can be added to the collection.
There are very few opportunities when Regional Depositories may choose to receive items in more than one format. When this selection choice is presented, the Libraries choose to receive the item in all the available formats.
The Libraries comply with the current “Recommended Specifications for Public Access Workstations in Federal Depository Libraries” to ensure that the university community and the general public can access US. Government information provided in electronic formats.
Selection tools for current items are not utilized since the University of Georgia Libraries are a Regional Depository.
Selection Tools for Bibliographic Access Tools/Reference Resources
The Regional Depository Librarian in consultation with the appropriate subject bibliographers will evaluate for purchase those bibliographic access tools/reference resources and databases available from private publishers, which would improve access to information in the U.S. Government Documents Collection. Some of the selection tools consulted would be:
- Documents to the People (DttP)
- Journal of Government Information
- Government Information Quarterly
- Publishers brochures and catalogs
The Libraries have subscribed to the Readex/Newsbank U.S. Non-Depository Collection in microprint and microfiche since 1953.
Documents that can be identified as not being in the Federal Depository Library Program but that should be acquired for the U.S. Government Documents Collection or Libraries general collections can be obtained by directly contacting the appropriate government agencies, or by purchase through the U.S. Government Printing Office Bookstore.
Non-depository documents received through mailing lists or as gifts may be added to the collection after appropriate review and evaluation.
The Regional Depository has an extensive retrospective collection of U.S. Government documents even though it was designated a depository in 1907. For example, the collection contains a complete bound set of the Congressional Record beginning in 1789 and a complete set of the War of the Rebellion. The Regional Depository will pursue acquisition of retrospective documents in order to complete sets or to acquire materials not presently owned. Attention will be given to acquiring publications from the “1909 Checklist” and from the retrospective editions of the Monthly Catalog that would enhance the collection. Some of the sources used to identify the availability of older documents would be offers lists from other depository libraries as well as gift and exchange programs. Microforms or reprints of U.S documents offered by private publishers would also be considered.
U.S. Government documents not available in the University of Georgia Libraries collection may be obtained from other libraries through the Interlibrary Loan Department.
Documents of a scientific or technical nature distributed through the depository program prior to 1977 may be available at the Georgia Institute of Technology located in Atlanta and may be requested from that institution.
Emory University in Atlanta subscribes to the Readex/Newsbank U.S. Depository Collection that provides access to U.S. depository documents that may not be available in the U.S. Government Documents Collection at University of Georgia Libraries.
Because Regional Depositories are required to retain permanently in their collections one copy of all documents received through GPO’s Federal Depository Library Program, traditional weeding practices are not followed. However, consideration may be given to some of the following:
- If a document is received in two or more formats, a decision can be made to retain only one format
- If a document is replaced by the same publication issued by a private publishers, the document may be weeded
- superseded documents may be withdrawn after consulting the instructions for Regional Depositories included in the Superseded List
- Loose-leaf services are maintained and pages discarded according to the instructions in the document or in the Superseded List
Binding for current U.S. Government periodicals is done on a regular basis whenever a volume is completed. Heavily used documents such as reference sources or Census publications may be bound when received or as needed. Retrospective binding of the collection is done when documents that need to be bound or rebound are identified through regular stack maintenance activities or when documents located for use in the stack area are in need of binding.
Preservation activities are conducted that include basic repair, rebinding and placing materials identified as brittle in protective enclosures to prevent further deterioration and damage.
Attempts can be made to replace badly worn or damaged or deteriorating documents by purchase, through depository offers lists or through reprint and/or microform publishers’ catalogs.
The Regional Depository will provide free and unimpeded access to U.S. Government information to the university community as well as the general public.
The U.S. Government documents are housed in the Main Library building, the Science Library building, the Map Library and in the Repository. The Superintendent of Documents classification number that is assigned to each publication determines its location in the Main, Science or Map Libraries. Documents to be housed in the Repository are selected by the staff of either the Main or Science Libraries. Location information is provided through the U.S. Government Documents shelf list and/or GIL, the Libraries on-line catalog.
Bibliographic access to the U.S. Government Documents Collection from 1976 to date is provided through GIL. In addition, supplementary bibliographic access tools in a variety of formats are available for current as well as retrospective documents.
Reference service for U.S. Government documents is provided for in-person, telephone or e-mail inquires by the public services staff in the reference departments in the Main and Science Libraries and by the staff in the Map Library. Reference service is available all times that these service points are staffed.
U.S. Government documents are included in the Libraries subject bibliographies and handouts, and pathfinders when appropriate. Information concerning the availability of U.S. Government publications is included in bibliographic instruction sessions given by library staff to classes and during general library orientation sessions.
Information about U.S. Government publications in the Libraries is included in the Government Documents Collections home page.
Most U.S. Government documents will circulate to persons with University of Georgia Libraries borrowing privileges. Documents on reference or in the Census Collection or those identified as being rare and endangered generally do not circulate outside of the Libraries. Most U.S. Government documents are available for lending through the standard interlibrary loan process.
Publications in the Library of Congress classifications of J 1-999 are shelved either as part of the Government Documents collection in the Main Library or at the Repository. Except for J84 (U.S. documents), these materials are added by bibliographers, not by Government Documents staff.
|Reference Collection Management Policy|
|Criteria for Specific Types of Materials|
|Circulation of Reference Materials|
Introduction: The University of Georgia Libraries’ reference collections exist to support the teaching and research of the University’s students, faculty, and staff. The reference collections comprise two formats: print and digital. Print collections are housed in the Main Library, Science Library, and the Miller Learning Center.
This Collection Management and Development Policy serves to guide reference collection selectors. It is a general statement of philosophy that underpins the growth and management of the reference collections at the University of Georgia Libraries.
Definition: A reference tool is “designed by the arrangement and treatment of its subject matter to be consulted for definite items of information rather than read consecutively” (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). Reference tools are usually one of two types: they either promote the rapid retrieval of factual information or they provide a starting point for further research. In either case, they are considered to be authoritative.
Criteria: The goal of the Reference Department is to collect print and digital products that are designed for efficient consultation, to provide factual answers, to give a concise overview of a subject, or to refer users to additional sources for research. It is of paramount importance that each collection strives for a balance between comprehensive coverage and concise in-depth information. The print reference collections occupy prime space on the entry levels of the Main and Science libraries, and their locations attract users who seek assistance in meeting their research, teaching, and general information needs.
Subject Scope: Items in the reference collections should be of broad introductory interest, although specialized sources will be included when they are in high demand. While each academic discipline has somewhat different information needs, reference sources should be weighed in view of their usefulness in finding facts, summaries, or references quickly. Resources that are narrowly focused and not expected to be in high demand are better suited for the stacks, even though their titles may include words such as “encyclopedia,” “dictionary,” or “almanac.”
Information Currency: New editions are added if they provide a substantial amount of newer information.
Authority: Sources are selected on the basis of their authoritative nature. Seminal reference works in a field and accurate, reliable, and current information all lend to the authority of the reference collections. Sources that are based on dubious research, treat topics superficially, or are shown to contain inaccurate information should not be in the reference collections. Librarians should evaluate the reputation of the author, publisher, and editorial staff before selecting a source for purchase.
Language: Strong preference is given to materials in English. Exceptions include foreign-language dictionaries and encyclopedias.
Format: Since ease of use is of utmost importance, selectors must evaluate the arrangement and the quality of indexing in print resources. Preference is given to electronic editions over print versions if the price difference is reasonable, as digital resources are more widely accessible and easier to search comprehensively. For electronic sources, any value-added features such as broader access, usability, currency, and links to related resources must be weighed against the greater cost over a print counterpart. In selecting electronic resources, librarians should favor one-time purchases over sources requiring subscriptions or continuing maintenance fees. In most cases, the cost of the electronic source should not exceed 25% of the cost of the print or have a price differential of $125 or more. Resources on CD-ROM/DVD that are limited to single workstations in the library buildings are generally not purchased.
Duplication: With the exception of a few sources that are heavily used by all disciplines (i.e., citation style guides, English-language dictionaries, and the World Almanac), print reference sources are not purchased for more than one building’s reference collection. Duplication of materials between the reference collections and the Law Library should be kept to a minimum. Duplication of stack material should be also avoided.
Almanacs: General almanacs are no longer purchased with the exception of the World Almanac and Book of Facts. High-demand specialized almanacs such as the Statistical Almanac of the United States, Almanac of American Politics, and The Astronomical Almanac are still collected.
Atlases: Current world and regional atlases are retained in the Main Reference collection until the Map Library moves to the current Russell Library space in Fall 2011. Gazetteers are purchased selectively since place name information is available on the Internet. The Science Library retains world, U.S., and Georgia atlases, as well as selected atlases of subject interest.
- National and Trade: These are no longer collected, as most countries have an online database or national library catalog.
- Monographs: Due to the increased availability of bibliographical databases, subject-specific bibliographies are generally not collected by Reference (i.e., Creation/Evolution Controversy: An Annotated Bibliography).
Biographical Sources: Main Reference collects and retains current and retrospective authoritative sources about major figures. Science Reference collects and retains current and retrospective biographical dictionaries of scientists.
Dictionaries: Main Reference selects the major monolingual, bilingual, polyglot, and etymological dictionaries. Science Reference selects general and subject-specific dictionaries of scientific terms as well as a selection of language dictionaries to suit researchers working internationally.
Directories: Directories are purchased when an equivalent depth of information and breadth of listing is not freely available on the web.
Encyclopedias: The Encyclopedia Britannica is available on GALILEO. Since some students still express a preference for print encyclopedias, Main Reference also maintains the Encyclopedia Britannica and Encyclopedia Americana in print. Science Reference collects broad-based encyclopedias covering the major branches of the sciences. Main Reference houses general foreign language encyclopedias for languages that the University curriculum supports. Subject encyclopedias are collected selectively depending on narrowness of scope.
Indexes and Abstracts: Reference subscribes to online periodical indexes that cover major disciplines with preference given to those that include the full-text of the sources indexed.
Legal Reference Materials: Main Reference houses general legal reference sources as well as U.S. and Georgia laws and regulations. Loose-leaf services that pertain to regulations and case law are not purchased in order not to duplicate the Law Library collection.
Manuals: Manuals are not generally collected since they are more appropriately used in laboratories or at field sites. GALILEO does include a small selection of manuals (handbooks, protocols, etc.).
Sacred Texts: Main Reference keeps a representative collection of standard versions of the Bible and other sacred scriptures for consultation.
Statistical Sources: Main Reference selects current and historical statistical sources covering demographic, social, and business topics worldwide. Science Reference selects current statistical sources on relevant topics where available.
Telephone Directories/City Directories: Residential and business telephone directories are not collected except for the most recent years for Athens and UGA. Since the Georgia Room maintains a complete collection of Georgia city directories, only the most recent Athens directory is in Main Reference.
Travel Guides: Guides for major U.S. cities and for popular foreign destinations are added selectively since much travel information is freely available on the web.
Reference materials do not circulate except with special permission from the librarian staffing the reference desk. Before giving permission, check GIL to see if the stacks hold a second copy or an acceptable substitute. Avoid giving special permission to heavily-used titles. Multivolume sets (or any volume that is part of a set) should not be loaned out since they may be difficult to replace. The loan period should not be for more than three days except in extenuating circumstances (i.e., over a holiday). If you are unsure whether to loan an item, it is probably best not to loan it out. Any patron objections may be referred to the department head for a final decision.
Science Reference and Main Reference each have Collection Development Coordinators who work in collaboration with subject specialists in Reference and Collection Development. They review approval plan shipments, monitor order requests from librarians, and submit orders via OCLC Select or directly to Acquisitions. These individuals have the authority to fund orders and are responsible for tracking expenditures in the one-time budget. The department head handles database subscriptions and is responsible for tracking the continuations and periodicals budgets. The Reference Collection Development Coordinators may set up database trials, but they must first consult with the Reference department head and notify the head of Acquisitions.
Selection: It is important that the reference librarians who are working with the collection on a daily basis be the ones primarily responsible for its development and maintenance. Reference librarians need to keep themselves apprised of available resources in their areas of responsibility. Selection duties include:
- Recommending titles for purchase
- Scanning review sources and publishers’ catalogs for important new sources in their subject areas
- Monitoring new editions and deciding whether they should be purchased
- Examining availability and price of electronic resources and deciding which format is preferred in light of cost and usability
- Communicating with their counterpart bibliographer about reference-type titles that may be better suited to the stacks collections
- Maintaining awareness of the reference sources needed to support class assignments and research trends at UGA
Weeding: Reference librarians should consult with relevant bibliographers to determine if items identified for removal will be transferred to the stacks, sent to the Repository, or withdrawn. Decisions should take into consideration whether another copy or an earlier edition is in the Libraries’ collections and, if so, where it is housed.
- Avoid sending a book to the Repository when an earlier edition is in the stacks. Consult with the bibliographer to decide whether all editions should be in the stacks or at the Repository, or whether the most recent should be in the stacks with prior years at the Repository.
- Also avoid sending second, third, or more copies of a low-use title to the stacks or the Repository. Space is tight in both places and withdrawing may be the best option. Check with a bibliographer for circulation counts to determine usage.
The Libraries’ collections have from the beginning been intertwined with the history of the University of Georgia. As the university expanded and grew in different academic directions, so the Libraries' holdings reflected that growth. From the outset the library has been recognized as the heart of the university: when the Board of Trustees provided for the first professor in 1800, they also established that a library be purchased for the sum of one thousand dollars. The majority of the first titles selected by a committee appointed by the Senatus Academicus or Board of Trustees were multiple copies of textbooks. They also recommended a list of books that might be described as a core collection for a liberal arts curriculum intended for “the use of Students at intervals when not engaged in the Academical Studies.”
An obvious correlation exists between the library buildings or rooms in the early years, and collection growth. While there is no official record of the location of the first library, it is generally believed that it was situated in the first building on campus. By 1820, the Library had moved to a room on the 2nd floor of Philosophical Hall, known for many years as Waddel Hall, and presently the Dean Rusk Center. The Library had been increased to over 2,600 volumes by the year 1823 when a move to New College took place. An unfortunate fire destroyed the 3,000 volumes housed there in 1830.
In 1831 the library found a new beginning in the Ivy Building, constructed just north of Demosthenian Hall and named for the vines scaling its walls. By 1862, the library had amassed 18,250 volumes and needed expanded facilities. A new library building was erected adjacent to the original one. In 1905 the old and newer structures were joined by the construction of a Corinthian portico across the front and are known as the Academic Building today.
The year 1905 marked a major turning point, as the library collection had become significant enough to warrant having its own separate building. With moneys from George Foster Peabody, the burgeoning collection of approximately 30,000 books found a comfortable home in the building currently used as the President’s Office.
The Georgia General Assembly in 1931 enacted legislation that had a significant impact upon not only the university, but also on the development of the library. The Reorganization Act of 1932 mandated the consolidation of the three separate schools in Athens: The State Teachers College (Coordinate College), the State College of Agriculture, and the University of Georgia. The unification of the libraries, however, was a slow process, and as of 1938 there were three main libraries, nine departmental libraries, and a recreational collection at Memorial Hall.
When the Libraries’ holdings reached 205,000 volumes in 1945, the Costa Building in downtown Athens was used as an annex. The termination of World War II allowed for a great increase in student enrollment and subsequently necessitated still another annex, a pre-fabricated building that was constructed in 1947 across from the General Library on Jackson Street. Clearly the growth of the university and the Libraries’ collections had caused the holdings to be so widely dispersed as to be a burden to students and librarians alike.
The Ilah Dunlap Little Memorial Library, dedicated in 1953 with a capacity for 700,000 volumes, alleviated conditions for nearly twenty years. In 1967 the Science Library, adjacent to the Boyd Graduate Studies Center, was opened specifically to serve the growing needs of the science departments of South Campus. In 1974 an annex was added to the Ilah Dunlap building, known as the Main Library, and in 1992 an offsite storage facility was constructed at the intersection of South Milledge Avenue and Whitehall Road.
The growth of the Libraries has historically reflected the budgetary allocations. Uncontrollable factors such as general economic conditions, wars and their aftermath have often dictated what amount could be expended on the library. Most recently the Libraries have weathered a severe crisis in serials inflation. Traditionally there has always been a need for additional funds to keep the Libraries growing at the same pace as the university.
Book selection responsibility was initially assigned to a faculty member; then the duty was at various times shared by the President of the university, the Board of Trustees, the faculty, and committees. The librarian, who had functioned as something akin to a caretaker, although equivalent to the faculty, finally came into full control with the appointment of the first full-time library director in 1940. The Libraries eventually assumed the primary responsibility for the development of the collection to correspond with the curriculum.
The Libraries’ collections today represent a rich and varied accumulation of purchases and gifts. The DeRenne Library acquired in 1938 is of singular importance as a collection of Southern History and literature through 1930 with particular strength in the Colonial and Confederate periods. Historically there had been and continues to be at the University an undying scholarly interest in collecting material on the Civil War. This interest, combined with the generosity of such donors as Felix Hargrett, has resulted in a Confederate Imprints collection of national distinction.
The library of the American Mathematical Society consisting of more than 13,000 items was on of the Libraries’ most important acquisitions. The Board of Regents and the General Education Board of New York made a joint gift of the library with an understanding the University increase the annual appropriation for mathematics journals.
The Charles Coburn Theatrical Collection, a major gift of theatre books, programs, photographs, scripts, props and other theatricana belonging to Charles Coburn, the Savannah-born actor, was willed to the university in 1969. This donation definitely influenced the development of the Theater Arts collections.
The Libraries’ commitment to collecting Georgia-related materials has traditionally been strong: The Louis Moore collection of over 4,000 books is an example, as are the Barber-Blackshear Collection, and the E.M. Coulter Collection. Manuscripts found in the Telamon Cuyler Collection, the Keith Read Collection and the Egmont Papers form a solid and invaluable background for research in the field of Georgia history.
Newspapers, despite their ephemeral nature, have long been valued as historical documents and considerable effort has been expended to acquire as complete a collection of Georgia newspapers as possible. In 1951 the Georgia Alumni Foundation donated $8,000 to initiate the microfilming of these Georgia newspapers.
During the last thirty years, the information explosion coupled with increased financial support for the Libraries has quickened the pace of the collection building process. For example, it took nearly 185 years to add the first million volumes to the collection, but only eleven years to acquire the second million, a milestone reached in the spring of 1981. Throughout the 1980's the Libraries received generous support from the University Administration and have improved their ranking within the Association of Research Libraries.